Mechanization is the process of shifting from the use of labor saving techniques to capital saving of production. In the twentieth century, a great controversy occurred when most organization started to use machines in their production processes. In comparison to the past where organizations used animal and human labor in the agricultural and industrial processes the twentieth century was a period of transformation in terms of production systems and quality of production (Joel, 2013). The 20th Century was a millennium of technological change in most sectors of the economy as the machines brought efficiency, cost-saving techniques and ensured total quality management in all the production processes. The controversy with the technological change was associated with unemployment problem associated with the change. Many economists believed that with adoption of mechanization in various sectors of the economy many people would be rendered unemployed and this would eventually result into increased poverty levels instead of elimination of poverty in the society.

The economist and society had a negative futuristic attitude to mechanization because they believed with mechanization of all the sectors of the economy most employed people would be rendered unemployed. The level of unemployment was expected to rise to high levels and this would reduce the income levels, efficiency, morale, motivation and accountability of the workers in the employment sector (Joel, 2013). The economists and the society believed that despite the fact that mechanization would increase production and quality of the products produced, the market for these products and services would be minimized because most people would be unemployed and would have little income to purchase these product. Technological change was expected to reduce purchasing power of the society through unemployment.

The economist and the society was in support of labor saving techniques because their increased the level of employment and income (Joel, 2013). The labor saving techniques increased their purchasing power, reduced their cost of living and improved their standards of living. They were against mechanization or capital saving techniques because they resulted into unemployment, increased cost of living and hindered standard of living due to reduced incomes.


Joel, Y. (2013). Greatest Engineering Achievements of the 20th Century: Industrial mechanization. New York Publishers