Conservation and restoration are purely ethical issues which add nothing to the value of art’. Discuss

Art Conservation and Restoration

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Conservation and restoration are purely ethical issues which add nothing to the value of art’. Discuss

Introduction

Overtime, artwork deteriorates. Exposure to deterioration agents accelerates the deterioration process. Apart from deteriorating, artworks can be damaged intentionally or unintentionally. Conservation and restoration help in repairing the damaged works. The two practices are surrounded by ethical concerns. For museums, the main ethical consideration in conservation and restoration is preserving the cultural aspects of an artwork. This is done through minimal intrusion on physical features and carrying out the process in a reversible manner. For the art market, the main ethical consideration is restoring an object to put it in good condition. Based on the ethical considerations of these two parties, conservation and restoration have an impact on the value of artworks. For museums, when done ethically, the practices attempt to regain the cultural value of art. However, when ethical principles are not followed the value is reduced. For the art market, when done ethically, conservation and mostly restoration add to the financial value of art.

Conservation and restoration

Various things can damage artworks including accidents. In 2015, a Taiwanese boy tripped up while admiring the exhibits. During this incident, the boy tore a hole in an artwork worth $ 1.5 million[1]. This happened in Taipei during a Leonardo da Vinci-themed show. The painting was insured and therefore, the boy and the family were not asked to pay up. Unfortunately, such accidents are common in destroying expensive artworks. There are other cases where people destroy artworks on purpose. For example, ‘The Night Watch’ by Rembrandt van Rijn was destroyed on purpose in 1990. A man sprayed the artwork with sulphuric acid[2]. This was actually the third time the famous work was purposely destroyed. In 1911 and 1975 criminals slashed it with knives. This artwork is considered the most famous of Rembrandt’s works. Fortunately, both the artworks are undergoing restoration[3]. So, what happens when artworks are damaged? Artists are given the responsibility of conserving and restoring the damaged artworks.

            Apart from accidents, artworks can undergo deterioration. This is any physical or chemical change that often occurs simultaneously. Such changes include staining and rusting. This is an inevitable process. It occurs when an artwork reaches a physical and chemical equilibrium with the environment[4]. Exposure to deterioration agents accelerates the deterioration process. The agents include direct physical forces, fire, water, pests, light levels, too high or low temperatures, and contaminants.

Conservation and restoration are two important concepts in the field of preservation of artworks. The two involves an attempt to conserve and repair any artwork that has been adversely destroyed. Conservation refers to the maintenance and preservation of artwork and protection from future damage[5]. The aim of the conservation project is to stabilize the condition of an artwork in its present state. Conservation prevents further deterioration of artwork from taking place. Also, conservation prevents further additions to complete mission parts in artwork with the exception of necessary additions for the future preservation of the work.

On the other hand, restoration falls under the word art conservation. It involves replacing or adding pieces of artwork to restore its original image[6]. This is referred to as compensation for losses by the At Conservators Alliance. It is any intervention taken to enable the artwork to recover its function. The intervention action is taken to make an artwork look original as close as possible by eliminating damaged pieces and replacing the missing elements. Restoration is also done to stabilize artworks. For instance, when an artwork misses some pieces making it fragile to study or handle, restoration can stabilize it[7].

Ethical issues in conservation and restoration

Just as in any other field, ethical issues arise when it comes to conservation and restoration. These concerns are different for museums and the art market. For museums especially public museums, the ethical consideration in conservation and restoration is preserving the cultural aspects of an artwork[8]. This is done through minimal intrusion on physical features and carrying out the process in a reversible manner. This means avoiding doing any harm to the original material. Due to this ethical aim, artwork conservation and restoration have attracted the voices of backlash[9]. Critics feel that the techniques used in art conservation can never preserve the integrity of artwork if the technique was not in existence when the author was creating the artwork. The practice is controversial mostly because it tends to reflect on contemporary aesthetic ideas[10]. It is also controversial because it can lead to unintended consequences of updating an artwork instead of preserving it.

Every generation of conservators believes it understands an artist’s original intent. Therefore, as the generations change, conservation ideas change. This means that conservation efforts continue to build off each other instead of focusing on original work[11]. Critics of conservation also argue that the use of new technology means the use of techniques that never existed when the author was creating the original work. Therefore, the restored work can never be true to the character if the original work[12]. Critics argue that conservation is rendering original artworks unrecognizable[13]. Some art historians such as Michael Daley and James Beck made attempted to expose restorers for destroying original artworks and serving as key components of a money-fueled scandal in the art industry.

According to art historians, the intellectual community did nothing while the industry was going out of control. As a result, the call for greater regulation in the industry as well as scrutiny has been called for. As early as 1904, various attempts were made to establish a set of principles to direct interventions to artworks[14]. Although there were different documents on the same, there were some agreements. The conservation process was supposed to be governed by absolute respect for the physical, historic, and aesthetic integrity of the artwork. It is also a process that requires a high sense of moral responsibility.  In the 1960s, the issue of ethics in conservation attracted more attention. This is especially with the publication of the Murray Pease Report (standards of Practice and Professional Relationships for Conservators) adopted in 1963[15]. This was also strengthened by the publication of the Code of Ethics for Art Conservators adopted by the IIC-American Group in 1967[16].

In line with the museums’ main ethical considerations in conservation and restoration, principles have been established to guide the practices. Among these principles include; first, conservators have the obligation to do no harm to an artwork. They are supposed to perform minimal intervention with the purpose of re-establishing structural and aesthetic meaning and legibility with minimal physical interference[17]. Second, conservators have the obligation to safeguard the authenticity of an artwork. Third, they have the obligation to respect the cumulative age-value of an artwork. Fourth, they have the obligation to perform research and documentation before and after any intervention. By following these principles, conservators can yield better results.

For the art market, the ethics of conservation and restoration are more complicated. The pressure to maximize profits by displaying works in good conditions complicates the ethics. Art dealers tend to value restoration more than museums[18]. This is why they buy unrestored works and organize the restoration processes by themselves. This way, they ensure that the works look more attractive adding to the monetary value. This is why when museums prefer conservation, the art market favors restoration[19]. Since restoration changes the physical as well as aesthetic features of artwork, ethical discussions end up in disagreements. For museums, the ethical decision would involve preserving the cultural aspects of an artwork. This is done through minimal intrusion on physical features and carrying out the process in a reversible manner[20]. For the art market, galleries and art dealers, the ethical decision would be restoring an artwork to look more attractive and in good condition adding to its monetary value[21]. Based on these ethical issues, it is clear that conservation and restoration have an effect on the cultural as well as the financial value of an object. The following section discusses the effects of conservation and restoration on the cultural and financial value of artworks.

Effects of conservation and restoration on the value of artworks

Effects on cultural value

Conservation attempts to restore the original value

For museums, conservation and restoration, when done ethically, attempts to regain the cultural value of artworks. However, when ethical principles are not followed the value is reduced. The cultural value of an artwork is the worth attributed to artwork by a community. An artwork will retain its cultural value if it remains original. So, any process that materially affects original works does not add any value to the art[22]. In fact, such a process reduces or damages the value of any work. In this section, two arguments will be discussed to show that conservation and restoration add nothing to the cultural value of art.

First, conservators only attempt to restore the original value. Conservators agree that all they do is try to restore the original value of the work[23]. Any attempts to improve a work would be unethical anyway. This is what the successful restorations have done, restore the value of the original work. Conservators argue that their work doesn’t reduce the value of a painting. They, however, agree that this depends on the ability of a conservator in restoring an artwork without changing anything about the original work[24]. This is the ethical obligation of all conservators. The restoration should attempt to bring out the work as original as possible. Still, some conservators argue that even when the restoration is done well, it doesn’t add any value to the art. What happens is, when the restoration is done correctly, no value is lost[25]. The following are two examples of successful restoration that regained the value of the artworks.

The Adoration of the Mystic Lamb

The restoration of The Adoration of the Mystic Lamb in the Ghent Altarpiece helped in regaining the value of the artwork. In 1550, the artwork was painted over by another artist leaving viewers confused[26]. After a multi-million dollar project of restoration, the original face of the work was revealed.  Art restorers consider the project as one of the most professionally done. According to the restorers, the artwork was restored to how it originally looked. Although some original paint was lost, the restoration brought back the original brightness and richness of details regaining the historical significance of the painting.

Everhard Jabach and His Family

Everhard Jabach and His Family is a grand-scaled portrait by Charles Le Brun. It is considered one of the most important portraits of the 17th century. It is actually a landmark of painting in France. It, therefore, has cultural value. When it was being commissioned, Brun was becoming the most powerful artist. The portrait was completed in 1660 and had therefore aged 355 years[27]. The portrait had several superficial scratches as well as structural damages. It was covered in a badly tinted varnish. It was almost split into half. However, its restoration is one of the success stories. The painting was brought back into life in a restoration process that involved retouching, re-varnishing, and structural work among other restoration techniques[28]. The restorers attempted to regain the original cultural value of the work.

Conservation reduces/damages the cultural value of art

The second argument is that conservators reduce or damage the cultural value of an artwork. If restoration is not done properly, then the cultural value of an artwork will be reduced or damaged.  An improper restoration with any damage changes the value of the artwork. Examples of restoration projects that reduced or damaged the cultural value of art.

Notre Dame

Notre-Dame was originally completed in the 13th century. It lies at the heart of French culture and history. It is a treasure of national Gothic architecture. The structure has lived important historical moments. For example, in 1804, Napoleon Bonaparte, the infamous French monarch, crowned himself as the French emperor. It survived two world wars. When France was freed from the Nazi occupation, the building rang a gigantic tenor bell. It was also considered a home of historical treasures[29]. This shows the cultural value of the building. In fact, due to its cultural significance, over 13 million tourists visit the site yearly[30]. It has also been an inspiration to other works such as the 1966 Hunchback of Notre Dame.

After its completion, it was ravaged several times by fires. This prompted another architect, to redesign the masterpiece. The new version was different from the original one. It was taller, more decorative, and sharper[31]. Other architects such as Roland Castro called for another reconstruction to get an identical design. Notre-Dame was unfortunately engulfed in flames again. Therefore, it will be redone. One thing is clear though, the artwork will never be the same[32]. This means that its authenticity will cease. When authenticity is lost, the cultural value of an artwork is reduced if not damaged. It is unfortunate that a symbol of national pride and a source of great cultural significance can never be replaced[33]. Not even conservation and restoration can bring back the cultural value of the building.

Castillo de Matrera

Castillo de Matrera is a medieval castle found in Spain. It dates back to the 9th century. In 1949, the work was declared a national monument by the Spanish government. In 1985, it was declared an example of a heritage of cultural interest[34]. It was built by Umar ibn Hafsun and was later conquered by San Fernando. By 2010, the work had undergone some deterioration. Only a few walls remained standing[35]. The rains in 2013 further destroyed the castle. In 2012, a restoration project was launched. Architect Carlos Quevado led the project which ended in 2015. Parts of the work were rebuilt using lime plaster comparable to samples found by restorers on the site.

castillo-de-matrera-7

Figure 1: Castillo de Matrera– Before and after restoration

Source: Lombardi, Pietro, ‘’What a blunder’: No magic in Spanish castle restoration’ CNN, (2016). Retrieved from https://edition.cnn.com/travel/article/spain-matrera-castle-restoration/index.html

The architect aimed at protecting the ruin and recovering the texture, tone, and volume the work would have had originally. However, the results were unfortunate. Most critics called the work terrible[36]. The building had an important historical value. But this value was reduced by the restoration process. The locals, as well as historians, were outraged by the restoration. The castle looked nothing closer to the original work[37]. It did not only anger but also horrify the locals (see figure 1). Some locals even argued that the work was done by builders instead of restorers[38]. Although the aim of the architect was to make the building loot as similar as possible to the original work, the results were undesired. Instead of retaining the value of the artwork, restoration reduced the cultural value of the work.

The Virgin and Saint Anne

The Virgin and Saint Anne is a treasured masterpiece by Leonardo da Vinci. The restoration process left the piece brighter and more pleasing (see figure 2). The painting had a historical significance as it represents the artist’s greatest artworks[39]. But after cleaning, the heavy colors, deep intricacies, and dark shadowing were eliminated and instead, bright colors were revealed. Art experts argue that the artwork was over cleaned leaving it brighter something that the original artist never intended. The experts even believe that the restoration of the artwork caused irreversible damage. This shows restoration reducing the value of an artwork.

Figure 2: The Virgin and Saint Anne– Before and after restoration

Source: Sciolino, Elaine. ‘Leonardo Painting’s Restoration Bitterly Divides Art Experts,’ The New York Times, (January 2014). Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/04/arts/design/clash-over-restoration-of-leonardos-virgin-and-child.html

Ecce Homo

            The restoration of Ecce Homo is another example of a project that reduced the value of art. The portrait was painted by Elias Martinez in Spain in 1930[40]. It shows Jesus crowned with thorns. The style, as well as the subject, follows the traditional art of Catholicism. The original artists donated the portrait to the village he used to visit during the holidays. It, therefore, had cultural value. After several years the portrait had started deteriorating[41]. In 2012, plans were made to restore it. It was put under the fate of an art restoration amateur. What followed is unfortunate results (see figure 3). Some people argue that the restoration of this portrait is one of the worst public errors[42]. The restoration process turned the art into a well-known piece of failed art. Some people even likened the painting with a monkey[43]. Clearly, the restoration process here reduced the value of the portrait instead of retaining the original value. The restorer damage Martinez’s artwork instead of repairing it. This is another prove that conservation and restoration add nothing to the value of art.

Figure 3: Ecce Homo: Before and after restoration

Source: Molly, Mark, ‘Are these the worst restorations in history? 6 shocking attempts’ The Telegraph, (2016). Retrieved from https://www.telegraph.co.uk/art/artists/are-these-the-worst restorations-in-history-5-shocking-attempts/

Effects on the financial value

            For museums, it is argued that conservation and restoration may regain or destroy the cultural value of objects. For the art market, conservation and mostly restoration add to the value of artworks. Value, in this case, refers to the financial value. There are several factors that affect the financial value of the artwork. For this paper, five major factors have been identified. First is the position of the artist. Art by famous artists will definitely be worth more. Second is the style. An artwork that represents the style of an artist is worth more. The third factor is the physical characteristics. Attributes such as color, size, painting time, and complexity also affect the financial value of an artwork. The fourth factor is the cultural value. An artwork with high cultural value is worth more[44]. This means that when one or some of these factors are affected, the financial value of an artwork is affected. The fifth factor is the condition of an artwork. A painting is worth more when it is in good condition. The better the condition the higher the financial value. A painting with tears, water damage, fading, dirt, paint loss, frame damage or sagging has a lower financial value.

During auctions, the condition of an artwork determines the financial value of that work. Buyers will always go for a piece that is better condition. This theory is common in all buying and selling scenarios. For example, when an individual decides to buy a car or a house, he or she will only settle for the one in good condition. Therefore, an art in good condition is considered more valuable. In fact, galleries or art dealers with artworks in bad conditions. For example, an 1843 portrait, ‘Le Marin’, was pulled from the auction after it was damaged. The painting was accidentally struck leaving a silver dollar-sized hole. With the damage, the painting would definitely be sold at a lower price. This is why outside conservators recommended that it goes for a successful restoration.

At this point, conservation and restoration become important practices for galleries and art dealers. The art market wants to make as much money as possible from artworks. So, they want to display the works when in their best conditions. So, what happens when a painting is damaged? It is cleaned and restored for greater financial value. This is what is ethical for the art market. In fact, there are paintings that have gained financial value after restoration. ‘Le Reve’ is one of such restoration successful stories for art dealers[45]. In 2006, Steve Wynn punctured Le Reve, one of the most famous paintings by Pablo Picasso. At that time, Wynn owned the painting and was about to sell it. When showing the painting to friends, he put the elbow through it and the deal was called off. After the restoration, the painting was sold in 2013 at US$155 million, US$16 million more compared to the expected price before the accident[46]. The ‘Flower’ worth $1.5 million by Paolo Porpora also regained its financial value after restoration. The 17th-century painting was damaged when a boy accidentally punched a hole in it during an exhibition. The painting was restored gaining its original value. Another example is the Salvator Mundi (Leonardo).

Salvator Mundi

Salvator Mundi -Before restoration

Source: Jones, Jonathan. ‘The Da Vinci mystery: why is his $450m masterpiece really being kept under wraps?’ The Guardian, (October 2018). Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2018/oct/14/leonardo-da-vinci-mystery-why-is-his-450m-masterpiece-really-being-kept-under-wraps-salvator-mundi

Salvator Mundi painting dates back to c1500. It was created by Leonardo da Vinci. The portrait was thought to have lost in the 17th century. In 1978, the original copy was found. The work was then presented in an auction in 2005 and was acquired. It was auctioned for less than $10,000 by art dealers[47]. Due to excessive overpainting, the work looked like a copy of the original. Art dealers thought the work was dark and gloomy. They decided to start a restoration process. After cleaning and restoration, the portrait gained financial value. In 2017, the painting was sold at $450 million at an auction in New York[48]. The restoration made the painting one of the most valuable artworks in the world.

Salvator Mundi– After restoration

Source: Jones, Jonathan. ‘The Da Vinci mystery: why is his $450m masterpiece really being kept under wraps?’ The Guardian, (October 2018). Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2018/oct/14/leonardo-da-vinci-mystery-why-is-his-450m-masterpiece-really-being-kept-under-wraps-salvator-mundi

Conclusion

            Ethical considerations surrounding art conservation and restoration result in differences on whether the practices add anything to the value of art. Some people argue that restorers add nothing to the value of art while others believe there is value addition. From this discussion, there are differences in the impact of conservation and restoration and art value. For museums, when done ethically, the practices attempt to regain the cultural value of artworks. However, when ethical principles are not followed the heritage value is reduced. The ethical consideration, in this case, is preserving the cultural aspects of an artwork. This is done through minimal intrusion on physical features and carrying out the process in a reversible manner. For the art market, when done ethically, conservation and mostly restoration add to the financial value of artworks. The ethical consideration, in this case, is restoring an object to put it in a good condition for added monetary value.

Bibliographies

Ahmed, Hatem. ‘The Importance of Artist-Conservator in Conservation-Restoration Process,’ Journal of American Science, 11 (6) 2015, 115-121.    

Crossick, Geoffrey. & Kaszynska, Patrycja. ‘Understanding the value of arts & culture: The      AHRC Cultural Value Project,’ Arts and Humanities Research Council, 2016, 1-204.

Hauenstein, Hanno. ‘Does Art Restoration Risk Erasing the Past?’ Frieze, 2019. Retrieved          from https://frieze.com/article/does-art-restoration-risk-erasing-past

Hoeniger, Cathleen. The Development of Principles in Paintings Conservation: Case Studies    from the Restoration of Raphael’s Art, In: Conservation: Principles, dilemmas, and      uncomfortable truths. London, 2009, 100-111.

International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS). ‘ICOMOS Principles for the        Preservation and Conservation/Restoration of Wall Paintings,’ 2003. Retrieved from       https://www.icomos.org/en/what-we-do/focus/179-articles-en- francais/ressources/charters-and-standards/166-icomosprinciples-for-the-preservation-          and-conservationrestoration-of-wall-paintings

Janowski, James. The moral case for restoring artworks’, in Ethics and Visual Arts. New         York. Allworth, 143-154.

Jobson, Christopher. ‘The Meticulous 10-Month Restoration of a 355-Year-Old Painting at   the Metropolitan Museum of Art,’ Colossal, 2015. Retrieved from            https://www.thisiscolossal.com/2015/06/brun-painting-restoration-met/

Jones, Bryony. & Chang, Wayne. ‘Boy trips, punches hole in $1.5 million painting’         CNN, 2015. Retrieved from https://edition.cnn.com/2015/08/25/asia/boy-trips-   punches-hole-in-painting/index.html

Jones, Jonathan. ‘The Da Vinci mystery: why is his $450m masterpiece really being kept         under wraps?’ The Guardian, October 2018. Retrieved from             https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2018/oct/14/leonardo-da-vinci-mystery-       why-is-his-450m-masterpiece-really-being-kept-under-wraps-salvator-mundi

Lombardi, Pietro. ‘What a blunder’: No magic in Spanish castle restoration’ CNN, 2016.          Retrieved from https://edition.cnn.com/travel/article/spain-matrera-castle-            restoration/index.html

O’Riordan, Caitlin. ‘Art Conservation: The Cost of Saving Great Works of Art,’ Emory            University School of Law, 2020. Retrieved from             http://law.emory.edu/eilr/content/volume-32/issue-3/comments/art-conservation-            saving-great-works.html

Picheta, Rob. ‘This newly restored 15th-century lamb is worrying art lovers,’ CNN, January             2020. Retrieved from https://edition.cnn.com/style/article/ghent-altarpiece-           restoration-scli-intl/index.html

Reyburn, Scott. ‘Pablo Picasso Painting, Valued at $70 Million, Is Damaged Before Sale,’           The New York Times, May 2014. Retrieved from    https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/14/arts/design/picasso-painting-damaged-     christies.html

Robertson, Iain. ‘The Art Business,’ Routledge, 2008.         

Sciolino, Elaine. ‘Leonardo Painting’s Restoration Bitterly Divides Art Experts,’ The New      York Times, January 2014. Retrieved from             https://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/04/arts/design/clash-over-restoration-of-leonardos-        virgin-and-child.html

Thottam, Isabel. ‘How do conservators restore damaged artworks, what does it cost, and how does it impact value?’ Art Business News, 2015. Retrieved from            https://artbusinessnews.com/2015/12/the-cost-of-conservation-and-restoration/


[1] Bryony, Jones. & Chang, Wayne. ‘Boy trips, punches hole in $1.5 million painting,’ CNN, (2015). Retrieved from https://edition.cnn.com/2015/08/25/asia/boy-trips-punches-hole-in-painting/index.html

[2] Isabel, Thottam. ‘How do conservators restore damaged artworks, what does it cost, and how does it impact value? Art Business News, (2015). Retrieved from https://artbusinessnews.com/2015/12/the-cost-of-conservation-and-restoration/

[3] Thottam, par6

[4] Ibid., par8

[5] Ahmed, Hatem. ‘The Importance of Artist-Conservator in Conservation-Restoration Process’ Journal of American Science, Vol.11, no. 6, (2015): 118.

[6] Hatem, ‘The Importance of Artist-Conservator in Conservation-Restoration Process,’ 118.

[7] Hatem, 119.

[8] Iain, Robertson. ‘The Art Business’ (Routledge, 2008): 188.

[9] Cathleen, Hoeniger. “The Development of Principles in Paintings Conservation: Case Studies from the Restoration of Raphael’s Art,” In: Conservation: Principles, dilemmas, and uncomfortable truths. London (2009): 102.

[10] O’Riordan, ‘Art Conservation: The Cost of Saving Great Works of Art’, par3.

[11] O’Riordan, par 4.

[12] Hoeniger “The Development of Principles in Paintings Conservation: Case Studies from the Restoration of Raphael’s Art,” In: Conservation: Principles, dilemmas, and uncomfortable truths, 102.

[13] O’Riordan, par 4.

[14] Ibid., par 5.

[15] Ibid., par 6.

[16] Ibid., par7.

[17] ICOMOS, ‘ICOMOS Principles for the Preservation and Conservation/Restoration of Wall Paintings’.

[18] Robertson. ‘The Art Business’ 189.

[19] Robertson, 189.

[20] Ibid., 188.

[21] Ibid., 189.

[22] Crossick & Kaszynska ‘Understanding the value of arts & culture: The AHRC Cultural Value Project,’ 4.

[23] Hanno, Hauenstein ‘Does Art Restoration Risk Erasing the Past?’ Frieze (2019). Retrieved from https://frieze.com/article/does-art-restoration-risk-erasing-past

[24] Hauenstein, ‘Does Art Restoration Risk Erasing the Past? Par4.

[25] Hauenstein, par 4.

[26] Rob, Picheta. ‘This newly restored 15th-century lamb is worrying art lovers,’ CNN, (January 2020). Retrieved from https://edition.cnn.com/style/article/ghent-altarpiece-              restoration-scli-intl/index.html

[27] Christopher, Jobson ‘The Meticulous 10-Month Restoration of a 355-Year-Old Painting at the Metropolitan Museum of Art’ Colossal, (2015). Retrieved from https://www.thisiscolossal.com/2015/06/brun-painting-restoration-met/

[28] Jobson, ‘The Meticulous 10-Month Restoration of a 355-Year-Old Painting at the Metropolitan Museum of Art’, par 1.

[29] Hauenstein, par5.

[30] Ibid., par6.

[31] Ibid., par6.

[32] Ibid., par7.

[33] Ibid., par9.

[34] Pietro, Lombardi ‘What a blunder’: No magic in Spanish castle restoration’ CNN (2016).

[35] Lombardi, ‘What a blunder’: No magic in Spanish castle restoration’, par2.

[36] Ibid, par 3.

[37] Ibid, par 5.

[38] Ibid., par7.

[39] Sciolino, Elaine. ‘Leonardo Painting’s Restoration Bitterly Divides Art Experts,’ The New York Times, (January 2014). Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/04/arts/design/clash-over-restoration-of-leonardos-virgin-and-child.html

[40] Mark, Molly ‘Are these the worst restorations in history? 6 shocking attempts’ The Telegraph (2016) Retrieved from https://www.telegraph.co.uk/art/artists/are-these-the-worst-restorations-in-history-5-shocking-attempts/

[41] Molly, ‘Are these the worst restorations in history? 6 shocking attempts’ par 5.

[42] Molly, par 6.

[43] Ibid., par 6.

[44] Crossick & Kaszynska, 5.

[45] Scott, Reyburn. ‘Pablo Picasso Painting, Valued at $70 Million, Is Damaged Before Sale,’ The New York Times, (May 2014). Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/14/arts/design/picasso-painting-damaged-christies.html

[46] Reyburn. ‘Pablo Picasso Painting, Valued at $70 Million, Is Damaged Before Sale,’ par5.

[47] Jonathan, Jones. ‘The Da Vinci mystery: why is his $450m masterpiece really being kept under wraps?’ The Guardian (October 2018). Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2018/oct/14/leonardo-da-vinci-mystery-why-is-his-450m-masterpiece-really-being-kept-under-wraps-salvator-mundi

[48] Jonathan, Jones. ‘The Da Vinci mystery: why is his $450m masterpiece really being kept under wraps?’ par4.

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