Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography

Student’s name

Institutional Affiliation

For the project, the selected topic is employee absenteeism. This is a major problem in organizations as it lowers performance. The main cause of absenteeism is a lack of motivation. A focus on this topic will help identify strategies to improve motivation and as a result address the problem of absenteeism. According to Pakdel (2013), the word motivation has a Latin root that means stimulate. It is a compound that describes certain behaviors. Pakdel (2013), states that motivation is the force that causes an individual to engage in specific behavior and not the other.

Pakdel (2013) also discusses the historical foundation of the concept of motivation. The author states that the concept of motivation can be traced back to the ancient Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, and Greeks. In the modern era, differences were made between active and inactive motivation aspects. Will is believed to be the active factor while the body is the inactive aspect. This identified will as the force of motivation. Later on, various theories of motivation have been provided. To study the relationship between motivation and employee absenteeism, it will be important to understand the two concepts. This article will provide greater insight into the concept of motivation.

According to Dorobantu et al., (2012), many theoretical investigations have been conducted around motivation. This has given rise to various motivational theories that help understand and explain the concept. Scientists apply these theories to find out what motivates behavior, how and why it is motivated. When applied, the motivational theories help to study and interpret phenomena within a certain school of thought. They provide a framework for understanding certain occurrences critically. The article will provide a framework for applying motivational theories in addressing the problem of employees’ absenteeism.

According to Badubi (2017), employee motivation plays a major role in the achievement of organizational goals. Failure to enhance motivation, organizations may suffer various consequences including employee absenteeism which harms performance. According to Badubi (2017), employees who are demotivated are a risk factor for the execution of daily operations. These risks include absenteeism, that is, the failure of employees to report when scheduled to work. Other risks include the loss of resources spent on training employees and the cost of employee replacement. This disrupts organizational operations. This article will help to understand the importance of employee motivation on performance.

According to Barbosa-McCoy (2016), organizations can use various strategies to enhance motivation and performance. First, organizations can use the material reward to enhance motivation especially among employees motivated by money. Second, organizations can use promotions, effective communication skills, fulfilling the physical and emotional needs of employees, and offering work-life balance to enhance motivation and performance. According to Tsai (2011), organizations can enhance motivation by appreciating employees’ performances and involving them in decision-making.

According to Forte (2017), there are four strategies to enhance motivation and reduce employee absenteeism. The first strategy is employee engagement achieved by connecting employees to the organizational vision and mission. This can help improve motivation as well as organizational success.  The second strategy is the use of effective communication to establish a connection with employees.  The third strategy is engaging in programs that promote employees’ wellbeing. This can improve motivation, lower absences, and improve performance (Forte, 2017). These three articles will help identify various strategies of enhancing motivation to address employee absenteeism and performance during the project.


Badubi, R. (2017). Theories of Motivation and Their Application in Organizations: A Risk            Analysis. International Journal of Innovation and Economic Development, 3 (3), 44-    51.

Barbosa-McCoy, V. (2016). Hotel Managers’ Motivational Strategies for Enhancing       Employee Performance. Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies, 1-156.

Dorobantu, M., Manolescu, A. & Nicoara, P. (2012). Applications of the Motivation Theories   in the Management of the Romanian Police. European Integration – Realities and             Perspectives, 1012-1019.

Forte, A. (2017). Strategies for Reducing Employee Absenteeism for a Sustainable Future: A             Bermuda Perspective. Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies, 1-197.

Pakdel, B. (2013). The Historical Context of Motivation and Analysis Theories Individual     Motivation. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3 (18), 240-247.

Tsai, Y. (2011). Relationship between organizational culture, Leadership behavior, and job        satisfaction. BMC Health Services Research, 11(1), 1-9. Doi: 10.1186/1472 – 6963-           11-98

All Rights Reserved,